Even less transparency

The government’s vision of journalism and freedom of expression encourages censorship and self-censorship. The mechanisms for funding the media are, in many cases, opaque or even corrupt, and editorial policies are subordinated to the interests of owners, who often use them as propaganda tools. At the same time, media ownership information is hidden from the public. The National Broadcasting Council has stopped making this information available on the grounds that it violates data protection legislation. During the coronavirus crisis, a lack of transparency and poor communication between officials and the media undermined access to information and media credibility. Government and state sector officials delayed or blocked information about medical supplies and other spending supposed to address the pandemic’s effects. During the state of emergency, the government announced a controversial policy aimed at banning online platforms promoting fake news and conspiracy theories but, in practice, it had the effect of raising their profile and giving them more weight. In order to combat disinformation and support the media sector, the government earmarked 40 million euros for media public information and awareness campaigns. But the initiative was widely criticised because of a lack of transparency and qualitative criteria with regard to the allocation of funding, which ended up favouring a number of media outlets with a reputation for ethical lapses, and encouraging self-censorship.

in the 2021 World Press Freedom Index



48 in 2020

Global score


25.91 in 2020

  • 0
    journalists killed in 2022
  • 0
    citizens journalists killed in 2022
  • 0
    media assistants killed in 2022
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