Far-right breakthrough

Elections in 2019 saw a breakthrough by the far-right party VOX, which came third in terms of votes. VOX has distinguished itself by its crusade against the media, with its supporters stirring up hate against journalists on social media and physically harassing them on the ground. Its leaders have had no qualms about publicly insulting journalists and refusing them accreditation for the events they organize. Hatred against journalist is not limited to VOX. In Catalonia, where the political climate is extremely polarized, journalists have been the targets of physical violence by both the police and independence supporters. Investigative journalists have been subjected to judicial harassment, with several being accused of violating the confidentiality of a judicial investigation and others being the targets of raids and searches. Even if most cases are eventually dropped, there is a growing tendency on the part of the judicial authorities and the police to override the protection of journalists’ sources and to obstruct investigative journalism.

in the 2020 World Press Freedom Index



29 in 2019

Global score


21.99 in 2019

  • 0
    journalists killed in 2021
  • 0
    citizens journalists killed in 2021
  • 0
    media assistants killed in 2021
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