Defamation proceedings and self-censorship
The state media’s transformation from government mouthpieces into public services in recent years and the creation of a Media Council in February 2015 have improved the environment for the media, which are diverse but very politicized. The fact that media ownership is very concentrated and most media are affiliated to political parties inhibits the emergence of independent media. Whether state or privately-owned, the media are under pressure from politicians and their ability to act as watchdogs is limited by the government’s lack of transparency and its susceptibility to criticism. Media legislation is still imperfect and criminalizes defamation. More than half of the civil and criminal defamation proceedings target media outlets. This accentuates the self-censorship resulting from the close links between media owners and politicians.
60 in 2016
27.61 in 2016