Jordan’s media take care to observe the red lines set by the authorities. Journalists are subject to close surveillance by the intelligence services and must be affiliated with the state-controlled Jordanian Press Association. The authorities have stepped up control—especially over the Internet— since 2012, when the press and publications law was overhauled. Hundreds of websites have been blocked since 2013, mostly on the grounds that they have no licence. Under the 2015 cyber-crime law, articles published in online newspapers and social network posts by citizen-journalists can be punishable by jail sentences and can constitute grounds for pre-trial detention. Security grounds are often used to prosecute and sometimes jail journalists under an extremely vague terrorism law. Gag orders issued by the media commission can restrict the public debate and limit journalists’ access to information on sensitive issues.
130 in 2019
43.11 in 2019