Index 2024
75/ 180
Score : 60.19
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator
Index 2023
56/ 180
Score : 68.38
Political indicator
Economic indicator
Legislative indicator
Social indicator
Security indicator

While the Kosovo media market is diverse, its development is limited by its small size and ethnic divisions. Media freedom is threatened by politicised regulation, gag suits, insufficient access to information and an increase in physical attacks. 

Media landscape

Despite its small size and division along the ethnic lines, Kosovo has a pluralistic and dynamic media market. The highly concentrated TV sector is dominated by private Pristina-based channels, although the public broadcaster RTK plays an important role. NEw online news portals include strong brands such as BIRN or Kosovo 2.0, the latter being one of the few media outlets to publish both in Albanian and Serbian.

Political context

Even if the media succeed in holding politicians accountable, journalists continue to be the targets of political attacks. The ineffective media regulator, IMC, is trying to reform itself. The biggest TV channel, Klan Kosova, has been subjected to administrative harassment from the government, which had also threatened public broadcaster RTK’s independence with the election of a close ally of the ruling party as its director. Serbian-language media, which are under pressure from Serbian political forces, have complained of discrimination in access to public information, particularly in their language, which is that of the constitutional minority. 

Legal framework

Freedom of expression, protection of sources and the right to information are legally guaranteed, while defamation and libel are decriminalised. But more and more journalists have been subjected to SLAPPs initiated by business groups and politicians. In practice, copyright law is not upheld and access to information is threatened by a draconian bill on media regulation and by proceedings launched against a telecoms operator. 

Economic context

The media are mainly funded by advertising revenues from the private sector, and are also sometimes supported by municipal authorities or political parties. In addition, through their owners, private media newsrooms are exposed to interference from powerful political or business groups. Serbian-language media face the extra challenge of a small market in which some media depend on funding from neighbouring Serbia, while the independent media would not survive without international funding.  

Sociocultural context

Although journalists are trusted by society, independent media and investigative journalists are often the targets of insults and fake news on social media. They are unfairly accused of “collaborating with the enemy”, rhetoric used by political and religious groups. 


No journalist has been killed since 2005. Murders and disappearances that took place before and during the Kosovo War (1998-2005) have gone unpunished. Journalists investigating drug trafficking or environmental pollution have been subjected to physical attacks and criminal networks have obstructed their reporting. Although the attacks are investigated by the police and prosecutor’s office, they have rarely resulted in prosecutions. Attacks against journalists have increased at times of political tension between Pristina and Belgrade. 

Exactions en temps réel au Kosovo

Killed since 1st January 2024
0 journalists
0 media workers
Detained as of today
0 journalists
0 media workers